Crime and Punishment

General Topic Information Questions of law provide challenging problems as the role of the legal system is viewed differently in different cultures and this topic also has very complex vocabulary. An important distinction between Western countries and developing countries is that in the power structure of Western countries, the law is above the government. For …

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The Media

GENERAL TOPIC INFORMATION The media plays an important role in Western society as it makes individuals and governments more accountable for their actions. The media plays a very different role in some countries compared to those in the Western world and these differences must be understood by students in order to write high quality essays. …

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For many students, particularly those from developing countries, education is a means to an end – usually a good job. Students will often fail to consider that education is more than what is learned at school or a certificate and different people will have different definitions of what educations consists of. For this reason, a …

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Correct Preposition Use Enhances Professionalism

Using prepositions properly is a hallmark of professionalism in both speech and writing, but learning which preposition to use in which circumstance requires memorization. Certain words must be followed by certain prepositions in order to achieve clarity. Learning these combinations will help you conform to professional standards in business writing. The following list of common …

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Effective Writing or Writing for Effect?

The stadium planning meeting will be held at 2.00 pm on 4 November 1997. The venue is the client’s conference suite, where coffee will be served from 1.30 pm. I suggest we meet there at 1.45 pm. This will give us a few minutes to discuss crucial points. Please call to confirm this arrangement. This …

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Letter B

BANTER: Good-natured teasing or ridicule-The two wits I exchanged banter, to the amusement of the audience. Synonyms: raillery, chaff BIASED: Prejudiced – misled by a biased point of view. Synonyms: bigoted, arbitrary, partial, partisan Antonyms: disinterested, equitable BIZARRE: Queer; unusual in appearance- bizarre clothes, outlandish in the extreme. Synonyms: odd, fantastic, grotesque, eccentric BOG: A …

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Letter A

ABANDON: To give up completely – abandoned the sinking ship. Synonyms: relinquish, forgo, forsake ACADEMIC: Pertaining to school; theoretical academic interests; an academic discussion, with no practical implications. Synonym: scholastic ACCELERATE: – To quicken, speed tip – took an accelerated course in order to graduate early. Synonym: expedite (adj. expeditious) Antonym: retard ADVERSITY: Misfortune – …

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CAE Writing

WRITING – Part 1 You must answer this question. Write your answer in 220-260 words in an appropriate style. 1. You have listened to a radio discussion programme about which facilities are needed most in your area. You have made the notes below: Which facilities are needed most in your area? • car park • …

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CAE Writing Part 1

Your class has listened to a panel discussion about how schools can best prepare young people for their future working lives. You have made the notes below: Strategies aimed at preparing young people for their future working lives • teaching practical skills • providing information about jobs • establishing links with local community Some opinions …

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Increase your range of language

Strategy 1: Using synonyms The word synonym is frequently misunderstood. Synonym does not mean ‘having exactly the same meaning’ but ‘having a similar meaning’. This difference is extremely important. You cannot simply delete one word from your text and insert another and think they have an identical meaning. Although words may have the same denotation …

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A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush

Idioms are usually defined as groups of words whose meaning is different from the individual words. So, ‘under the weather’ has nothing to do with the literal meaning of ‘the weather’; it means ‘feeling ill’. If you ‘sweep something under the carpet’, you try to keep something secret; and if you put someone in the …

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abound with

abound with/in sth, /əˈbaʊnd/, literally or formal, to contain a lot of something The rivers abounded with fish.The Costa Azul abounds with bars, restaurants and night-clubs.… a densely forested area, abounding with wildlife. Similar to: be full ofAbound, abounded, abounded, abounding


act, /ækt/, acted, acted, actingAct for sb: if someone, especially a lawyer acts for you, you employ them to deal with something for you or to speak for you in a court of law: Lawyers, acting for ex-smokers are suing the big tobacco companies for billions of dollars. The buyer of the painting said he …

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ache for

Ache for, /eɪk fə/, ached, ached, achingAche for sth to want something very much, and feel very unhappy that you cannot have it:Suddenly his heart ached for the sight of his native country. Ache for sbIf you ache for someone you love you feel very unhappy because you cannot be with them: He ached for …

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abide by

abide by sth, /əˈbʌɪd/ ,(formal) to accept rules, a law, an agreement, a decision, etc. and obey them/it.Members must abide by the rules of the club. Tyson promised to abide by the terms and conditions of his release.Ex: abide by rules, the law, a decision.Similar to: observe (formal), stick to, keep to (BrE), comply with …

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